עמוד:8

SECOND PAPER PART I : ACCESS TO INFORMATION FROM WRITTEN TEXTS ( 60 points ) Read the article below and then answer questions 1-7 . LEARNING THE HARD WAY One of the most powerful learning tools we have is motivation . It is that inner drive that pushes us to work hard in order to succeed . But how do we become motivated , and what can teachers do to light that inner fire ? Over the years , numerous studies have been conducted to answer these questions . Recommended tactics vary from praising students for their work , to rewarding them for good behavior . But now a new study by Professor Lin-Siegler from Columbia University suggests a different approach . She discovered that low-performing science students can be motivated when they learn about the personal and professional struggles of great scientists . Professor Lin-Siegler’s research focused on ninth- and tenth-grade students from four New York City high schools in low-income areas of the Bronx and Harlem . At the beginning of the experiment , she divided the students into three groups . The first group read an excerpt from a textbook about the accomplishments of Einstein , Curie and Faraday ( an English scientist ) . The second group read about the personal struggles of the same scientists , including Einstein’s flight from Nazi Germany to avoid persecution . And the last group read about the scientists’ professional setbacks , such as their failed experiments . After six weeks , the two groups that had read about the scientists’ personal and professional hardships , improved their grades significantly . In contrast , the students who had only learned about the scientists’ achievements , performed worse than before the experiment , admitting that the information about the scientists ’ achievements caused them to lose confidence . “ They were discouraged because they believed that the scientists were innately gifted – unlike them , ” explains Martin Palling , who teaches at one of the New York City high schools where the experiment took place . Mr . Palling’s observation ties in with a ground-breaking study on motivation and self-esteem , conducted by Professor Carol Dweck from Stanford University . Her research shows that students who view cognitive ability as fixed or unchangeable tend to give up when faced with a difficult task . In contrast , students who believe that academic abilities can be improved over time are not likely to be discouraged by setbacks . On the contrary , they are motivated to keep trying in the face of

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