1 PAST PERFECT SIMPLE page 57 2 PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE page 59 3 PRESENT PERFECT / PAST PERFECT page 61 CHECK YOURSELF page 63 FROM GRAMMAR TO WRITING page 64 1 PAST PERFECT SIMPLE POSITIVE : had + V 3 I had cleaned the house by 9 pm . NEGATIVE : had not + V 3 He had not cleaned the house by 9 pm . QUESTION : Had … + V 3 Had you cleaned the house by 9 pm ? We use the Past Perfect Simple in the following case : I apologized to Dan because I had insulted him . for an activity that happened before another activity or time in the past . The first action is in the Past Perfect Simple ; the later action is in the Past Simple . The Past Perfect is also used in Reported Speech and in the Third Conditional . ( See Units 12 and 16 . ) Note : Two past actions which happened at almost the same time are both expressed in the Past Simple . When she saw the ghost , she fainted . TIME EXPRESSIONS We often use the following time expressions with the Past Perfect Simple : when by the time before after...  אל הספר